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Hydrus 2D-3D

Year of publication:
Hydrus 2D-3D


J. Šimůnek1, M. Šejna2, and M. Th. van Genuchten3

1Department of Environmental Sciences

University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521

2PC-Progress s.r.o.
Korunní 2569/108a
Prague, 101 00, Czech Republic

3Department of Mechanical Engineering

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil





The Hydrus (2D/3D) Model Description

HYDRUS is a Microsoft Windows based modeling environment for the analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. The HYDRUS program is a finite element model for simulating the two- and three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The HYDRUS program numerically solves the Richards equation for saturated-unsaturated water flow and convection-dispersion type equations for heat and solute transport. The flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The heat transport equation considers movement by conduction as well as convection with flowing water. The governing convection-dispersion solute transport equations are written in a very general form by including provisions for nonlinear nonequilibrium reactions between the solid and liquid phases, and linear equilibrium reaction between the liquid and gaseous phases. Hence, both adsorbed and volatile solutes, such as pesticides, can be considered. The solute transport equations also incorporate the effects of zero-order production, first-order degradation independent of other solutes, and first-order decay/production reactions that provide the required coupling between the solutes involved in the sequential first-order chain. The transport models also account for convection and dispersion in the liquid phase, as well as diffusion in the gas phase, thus permitting the model to simulate solute transport simultaneously in both the liquid and gaseous phases. At present, HYDRUS considers up to fifteen solutes, which can either be coupled in a unidirectional chain or move independently of each other. Physical nonequilibrium solute transport can be accounted for by assuming a two-region, dual porosity type formulation, which partitions the liquid phase into mobile and immobile regions. Attachment/detachment theory, including the filtration theory, is included to simulate transport of viruses, colloids, and/or bacteria.

The Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Properties are described using van Genuchten [1980], Brooks and Corey [1964] and modified van Genuchten type analytical functions. Modifications were made to improve the description of hydraulic properties near saturation. The HYDRUS code incorporates hysteresis by using the empirical model introduced by Scott et al. [1983] and Kool and Parker [1987]. This model assumes that drying scanning curves are scaled from the main drying curve, and wetting scanning curves from the main wetting curve.

HYDRUS also implements a scaling procedure to approximate hydraulic variability in a given soil profile by means of a set of linear scaling transformations which relate the individual soil hydraulic characteristics to those of a reference soil.

The governing flow and transport equations are solved numerically using Galerkin type linear finite element schemes. Integration in time is achieved using an implicit (backwards) finite difference scheme for both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Additional measures are taken to improve solution efficiency for transient problems, including automatic time step adjustment and adherence to preset ranges of the Courant and Peclet numbers. The water content term is evaluated using the mass conservative method proposed by Celia et al. [1990]. Possible options for minimizing numerical oscillations in the transport solutions include upstream weighing, artificial dispersion, and/or performance indexing.

HYDRUS implements a Marquardt-Levenberg type parameter estimation technique for inverse estimation of selected soil hydraulic and/or solute transport and reaction parameters from measured transient or steady-state flow and/or transport data. The procedure permits several unknown parameters to be estimated from observed water contents, pressure heads, concentrations, and/or instantaneous or cumulative boundary fluxes (e.g., infiltration or outflow data). Additional retention or hydraulic conductivity data, as well as a penalty function for constraining the optimized parameters to remain in some feasible region (Bayesian estimation), can be optionally included in the parameter estimation procedure.





Scientific articles

Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue “Vadose Zone Modeling”, 7(2), 587-600, 2008.


Technical information

Operating system(s):

Intel Pentium or higher processor, 16 Mb RAM, hard disk with at least 20 Mb free disk space, VGA graphics (High Color recommended), MS Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP, Vista (32/64-bit), Windows 7 (32/64-bit) and Windows 8 (32/64-bit).

Licence: Commercial program (





Further citations:


Abdel-Nasser, G.: Predicting atrazine transport into subsurface tile-drained soil using the HYDRUS-2D model: lysimeter study. In: Pesticide Behaviour in Soils and Water, Walker, A. (Ed.), British Crop Protection Council Symposium Proceedings, 78, 2001.

Adhikari, K., Pal, S., Chakraborty, B., Mukherjee, S. N., and Gangopadhyay, A.: Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186, 6417-6432, 2014.

Agah, A. E., Meire, P., and de Deckere, E.: Simulation of Phosphorus Transport in Soil Under Municipal Wastewater Application Using Hydrus-1D, 2016.

Agah, A. E. and Wyseure, G.: Numerical Modeling of Transport and Transformation of Synthetic Wastewater in Irrigated Soils using HYDRUS-1D, International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15, 541-546, 2013.

Agar, A., White, A., Clement, C., and Lim, R.: THE SYDNEY MULTI-CENTRE HYDRUS STUDY: THREE YEAR OUTCOMES FOR STANDALONE MIGS, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 46, 67-67, 2018.

Akay, O., Fox, G. A., and Simunek, J.: Numerical simulation of flow dynamics during macropore-subsurface drain interactions using HYDRUS, Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 909-918, 2008.

Akbar, G., Raine, S., McHugh, A. D., and Hamilton, G.: Managing lateral infiltration on wide beds in clay and sandy clay loam using Hydrus 2D, Irrigation Science, 33, 177-190, 2015.

Al-Mugheiry, T., Cate, H., Clark, A., and Broadway, D. C.: Micro-invasive Glaucoma Stent (MIGS) Surgery using the Ivantis Hydrus (TM) Microstent: outcomes and the learning curve, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57, 2016.

Al Jabri, S. A. and Youngs, E. G.: Steady-State Water Tables in Drained Lands Modeled Using the HYDRUS Package and Compared with Theoretical Analyses, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 141, 2015.


Anlauf, R., Schaefer, J., and Kajitvichyanukul, P.: Coupling HYDRUS-1D with ArcGIS to estimate pesticide accumulation and leaching risk on a regional basis, Journal of Environmental Management, 217, 980-990, 2018.


Autovino, D., Rallo, G., and Provenzano, G.: Predicting soil and plant water status dynamic in olive orchards under different irrigation systems with Hydrus-2D: Model performance and scenario analysis, Agricultural Water Management, 203, 225-235, 2018.

Baram, S., Couvreur, V., Harter, T., Read, M., Brown, P. H., Kandelous, M., Smart, D. R., and Hopmans, J. W.: Estimating Nitrate Leaching to Groundwater from Orchards: Comparing Crop Nitrogen Excess, Deep Vadose Zone Data-Driven Estimates, and HYDRUS Modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 15, 2016.

Beegum, S., Simunek, J., Szymkiewicz, A., Sudheer, K. P., and Nambi, I. M.: Implementation of Solute Transport in the Vadose Zone into the "HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW", Groundwater, 57, 392-408, 2019.

Beegum, S., Simunek, J., Szymkiewicz, A., Sudheer, K. P., and Nambi, I. M.: Updating the Coupling Algorithm between HYDRUS and MODFLOW in the HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW, Vadose Zone Journal, 17, 2018.

Berger, K.: Operational validation of HYDRUS (2D/3D) for capillary barriers using data of a 10-m tipping trough, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 153-160, 2018.

Boivin, A., Simunek, J., Schiavon, M., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Comparison of pesticide transport processes in three tile-drained field soils using HYDRUS-2D, Vadose Zone Journal, 5, 838-849, 2006.

Brown, C. and Spurlock, F.: Estimation of 1,3-dichloropropene flux by application method under California use conditions using HYDRUS 2-D, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 256, 2018.

Bufon, V. B., Lascano, R. J., Bednarz, C., Booker, J. D., and Gitz, D. C.: Soil water content on drip irrigated cotton: comparison of measured and simulated values obtained with the Hydrus 2-D model, Irrigation Science, 30, 259-273, 2012.

Chaves, H. M. L., Jankosz, A. V., Lucchesi, L. A. C., and Marques, P.: Accuracy of the Hydrus Model to Predict Nitrate Leaching as a Result of Applying Treated Sewage Sludge to Soils of Different Textures, Rbrh-Revista Brasileira De Recursos Hidricos, 21, 99-104, 2016.

Chen, M., Willgoose, G. R., and Saco, P. M.: Spatial prediction of temporal soil moisture dynamics using HYDRUS-1D, Hydrological Processes, 28, 171-185, 2014.

Cheviron, B. and Coquet, Y.: Sensitivity Analysis of Transient-MIM HYDRUS-1D: Case Study Related to Pesticide Fate in Soils, Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 1064-1079, 2009.

Crotch, I., Thomas, K., Barry, K., Beech, P. F., Bockle, M., Bonnell, J., Clough, S. G., Cooper, G. M., Copping, M., Croxon, S. J., Evans, P., Goes, C., Hamlett, R. A., Johnston, K., Jones, A., Juniper, P., Kersley, N., Lockyer, P., Martin, P. N., McLean, J., Myall, M., O'Malley, J., Pearce, A. G., Pearce, C., Phillips, M. J., Pope, S. C., Pullinger, K. P., Short, D. J., Sinclair, M. A., Smith, I. D., Stevens, A., Stevens, A. L., Swatton, D., Graneau, N., Honey, D., Swierkosz, M., Tyldesley, M. J., Wain, J., Webb, K., Williams, T. J., Williamson, M. C., Davitt, R., Jeffries, G., Parlour, A., Webb, N., Alban, R., Stuart, K., and Ieee: Pulsed power driven flash X-ray sources for the Hydrus project at AWE, 2007.

de Andrade, C. W. L., Montenegro, S., de Miranda, J. H., Montenegro, A. A. D., and de Assis, F.: SIMULATION OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM DYNAMICS BY THE HYDRUS 2D MODEL IN A HAPLIC PLANOSOL VIA RESIDUE WATER, Engenharia Agricola, 38, 874-884, 2018.


Deb, S. K., Shukla, M. K., Simunek, J., and Mexal, J. G.: Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Root Water Uptake Patterns of a Flood-Irrigated Pecan Tree Using the HYDRUS (2D/3D) Model, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139, 599-611, 2013.

Demirel, K., Kavdir, Y., and Anlauf, R.: USING HYDRUS-2D SIMULATIONS TO PREDICT SOIL WATER CONTENTS ON SOIL WATER RETENTION BARRIERS IN TURFGRASS, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 24, 4322-4332, 2015.

Doltra, J. and Munoz, P.: Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models, Agricultural Water Management, 97, 277-285, 2010.

dos Santos, D. R., Cambier, P., Mallmann, F. J. K., Labanowski, J., Lamy, I., Tessier, D., and van Oort, F.: Prospective modeling with Hydrus-2D of 50 years Zn and Pb movements in low and moderately metal-contaminated agricultural soils, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 145, 54-66, 2013.

Dutta, D., Das, P. K., Paul, S., Khemka, T., Nanda, M. K., and Dadhwal, V. K.: Spectral Response of Potato Crop to Accumulative Moisture Stress Estimated from Hydrus-1D Simulated Daily Soil Moisture During Tuber Bulking Stage, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 44, 363-371, 2016.

Ebrahimian, H. and Noory, H.: Modeling paddy field subsurface drainage using HYDRUS-2D, Paddy and Water Environment, 13, 477-485, 2015.

Egea, G., Diaz-Espejo, A., Fernandez, J. E., Sanchez, R. A., Osorio, C. R., and Molina, H. P.: Agro-hydrologic assessment of a drip-irrigated hedgerow olive orchard with HYDRUS 2D/3D, 2016.

El-Nesr, M. N., Alazba, A. A., and Simunek, J.: HYDRUS simulations of the effects of dual-drip subsurface irrigation and a physical barrier on water movement and solute transport in soils, Irrigation Science, 32, 111-125, 2014.

Elmi, A., Abou Nohra, J. S., Madramootoo, C. A., and Hendershot, W.: Estimating phosphorus leachability in reconstructed soil columns using HYDRUS-1D model, Environmental Earth Sciences, 65, 1751-1758, 2012.

Elnesr, M. N. and Alazba, A. A.: Computational evaluations of HYDRUS simulations of drip irrigation in 2D and 3D domains (i-Surface drippers), Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 162, 189-205, 2019.

Fea, A., Consolandi, G., Pignata, G., Cannizzo, P. M. L., Dal Vecchio, M., Gallozzi, F., Lavia, C., Rolle, T., and Grignolo, F.: The effect of the Hydrus trabecular shunt on endothelial cell count: a double blind prospective randomized clinical study, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54, 2013.

Fea, A. M., Ahmed, I. I. K., Lavia, C., Mittica, P., Consolandi, G., Motolese, I., Pignata, G., Motolese, E., Rolle, T., and Frezzotti, P.: Hydrus microstent compared to selective laser trabeculoplasty in primary open angle glaucoma: one year results, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 45, 120-127, 2017.

Fea, A. M., Consolandi, G., Cannizzo, P., Pignata, G., Lavia, C., and Rolle, T.: Is trabecular sugery (Hydrus-Ivantis) really safe? Operative and post-operative complications of a single site clinical group, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56, 2015a.

Fea, A. M., Consolandi, G., Pignata, G., Cannizzo, P. M. L., Lavia, C., Billia, F., Rolle, T., and Grignolo, F. M.: A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results, Journal of Ophthalmology, doi: 10.1155/2015/769289, 2015b. 2015b.

Ghazouani, H., Autovino, D., Rallo, G., Douh, B., and Provenzano, G.: Using HYDRUS-2D model to assess the optimal drip lateral depth for Eggplant crop in a sandy loam soil of central Tunisia, Italian Journal of Agrometeorology-Rivista Italiana Di Agrometeorologia, 21, 47-58, 2016.

Ghazouani, H., Rallo, G., Mguidiche, A., Latrech, B., Douh, B., Boujelben, A., and Provenzano, G.: Assessing Hydrus-2D Model to Investigate the Effects of Different On-Farm Irrigation Strategies on Potato Crop under Subsurface Drip Irrigation, Water, 11, 2019.

Grecco, K. L., de Miranda, J. H., Silveira, L. K., and van Genuchten, M. T.: HYDRUS-2D simulations of water and potassium movement in drip irrigated tropical soil container cultivated with sugarcane, Agricultural Water Management, 221, 334-347, 2019.

Han, M., Zhao, C. Y., Feng, G., Yan, Y. Y., and Sheng, Y.: Evaluating the Effects of Mulch and Irrigation Amount on Soil Water Distribution and Root Zone Water Balance Using HYDRUS-2D, Water, 7, 2622-2640, 2015a.

Han, M., Zhao, C. Y., Simunek, J., and Feng, G.: Evaluating the impact of groundwater on cotton growth and root zone water balance using Hydrus-1D coupled with a crop growth model, Agricultural Water Management, 160, 64-75, 2015b.


Hartmann, A., Simunek, J., Aidoo, M. K., Seidel, S. J., and Lazarovitch, N.: Implementation and Application of a Root Growth Module in HYDRUS, Vadose Zone Journal, 17, 2018.

Hassan, G., Persaud, N., and Reneau, R. B.: Utility of hydrus-2D in modeling profile soil moisture and salinity dynamics under saline water irrigation of soybean, Soil Science, 170, 28-37, 2005.

He, K. K., Yang, Y. G., Yang, Y. M., Chen, S. Y., Hu, Q. L., Liu, X. J., and Gao, F.: HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain, Water, 9, 2017.

Hilten, R. N., Lawrence, T. M., and Tollner, E. W.: Modeling stormwater runoff from green roofs with HYDRUS-1D, Journal of Hydrology, 358, 288-293, 2008.

Hlavacikova, H., Novak, V., Kostka, Z., Danko, M., and Hlavco, J.: The influence of stony soil properties on water dynamics modeled by the HYDRUS model, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 181-188, 2018.

Honari, M., Ashrafzadeh, A., Khaledian, M., Vazifedoust, M., and Mailhol, J. C.: Comparison of HYDRUS-3D Soil Moisture Simulations of Subsurface Drip Irrigation with Experimental Observations in the South of France, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 143, 2017.

Horel, A., Lichner, L., Alaoui, A., Czachor, H., Nagy, V., and Toth, E.: Transport of iodide in structured clay-loam soil under maize during irrigation experiments analyzed using HYDRUS model, Biologia, 69, 1531-1538, 2014.

Horel, A., Schiewer, S., and Misra, D.: Effect of concentration gradients on biodegradation in bench-scale sand columns with HYDRUS modeling of hydrocarbon transport and degradation, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 13251-13262, 2015.

Hou, L. Z., Zhou, Y. X., Bao, H., and Wenninger, J.: Simulation of maize (Zea mays L.) water use with the HYDRUS-1D model in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, Northwest China, Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques, 62, 93-103, 2017.

Hu, Q. L., Yang, Y. H., Han, S. M., Yang, Y. M., Ai, Z. P., Wang, J. S., and Ma, F. Y.: Identifying changes in irrigation return flow with gradually intensified water-saving technology using HYDRUS for regional water resources management, Agricultural Water Management, 194, 33-47, 2017.

Iqbal, S., Guber, A. K., and Khan, H. Z.: Estimating nitrogen leaching losses after compost application in furrow irrigated soils of Pakistan using HYDRUS-2D software, Agricultural Water Management, 168, 85-95, 2016.

Jaikaew, P., Malhat, F., Tu, L. H., Boulange, J., Jiraratchwaro, C., and Watanabe, H.: INVESTIGATION OF LEACHING PROCESSES OF HERBICIDES IN SOIL COLUMN SIMULATING BY HYDRUS-1D MODEL, Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology, 24, 423-432, 2017.

Janssens, P., Eisen, A., Wachters, L., De Nies, J., Bhatta, I., Diels, J., and Vandendriessche, H.: Numerical HYDRUS 2D simulation of root zone water uptake dynamics by drip irrigated asparagus. In: International Symposium on Sensing Plant Water Status - Methods and Applications in Horticultural Science, Herppich, W. B. (Ed.), Acta Horticulturae, 2018.

Jha, R. K., Sahoo, B., and Panda, R. K.: Modeling the water and nitrogen transports in a soil-paddy-atmosphere system using HYDRUS-1D and lysimeter experiment, Paddy and Water Environment, 15, 831-846, 2017.

Jiang, S., Pang, L. P., Buchan, G. D., Simunek, J., Noonan, M. J., and Close, M. E.: Modeling water flow and bacterial transport in undisturbed lysimeters under irrigations of dairy shed effluent and water using HYDRUS-1D, Water Research, 44, 1050-1061, 2010.

Jiang, X. J., Chen, C. F., Zhu, X. A., Zakari, S., Singh, A. K., Zhang, W. J., Zeng, H. H., Yuan, Z. Q., He, C. G., Yu, S. Q., and Liu, W. J.: Use of dye infiltration experiments and HYDRUS-3D to interpret preferential flow in soil in a rubber-based agroforestry systems in Xishuangbanna, China, Catena, 178, 120-131, 2019.

Jin, G., Shimizu, Y., Onodera, S., Saito, M., and Matsumori, K.: Evaluation of drought impact on groundwater recharge rate using SWAT and Hydrus models on an agricultural island in western Japan. In: Hydrologic Non-Stationarity and Extrapolating Models to Predict the Future, Vaze, J., Chiew, F., Hughes, D., and Andreassian, V. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), 2015.

Jun, P., Te, L., and Yang, L.: Based On HYDRUS-1D To Shifosi Reservoir Tri-Nitrogen Conversion Simulation Research In Hyporheic Zone. In: Advances in Environmental Technologies, Pts 1-6, Zhao, J., Iranpour, R., Li, X., and Jin, B. (Eds.), Advanced Materials Research, 2013.

Kacimov, A. R., Obnosov, Y. V., and Simunek, J.: Minimizing Evaporation by Optimal Layering of Topsoil: Revisiting Ovsinsky's Smart Mulching-Tillage Technology Via Gardner-Warrick's Unsaturated Analytical Model and HYDRUS, Water Resources Research, 55, 3606-3618, 2019.

Kadyampakeni, D. M., Morgan, K. T., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Schumann, A. W., and Jawitz, J. W.: Modeling Water and Nutrient Movement in Sandy Soils Using HYDRUS-2D, Journal of Environmental Quality, 47, 1546-1553, 2018.

Kandelous, M. M. and Simunek, J.: Numerical simulations of water movement in a subsurface drip irrigation system under field and laboratory conditions using HYDRUS-2D, Agricultural Water Management, 97, 1070-1076, 2010.

Kanzari, S., Ben Nouna, B., Ben Mariem, S., and Rezig, M.: Hydrus-1D model calibration and validation in various field conditions for simulating water flow and salts transport in a semi-arid region of Tunisia, Sustainable Environment Research, 28, 350-356, 2018.

Karandish, F., Darzi-Naftchali, A., and Simunek, J.: Application of HYDRUS (2D/3D) for Predicting the Influence of Subsurface Drainage on Soil Water Dynamics in a Rainfed-Canola Cropping System, Irrigation and Drainage, 67, 29-39, 2018.

Karandish, F. and Simunek, J.: An application of the water footprint assessment to optimize production of crops irrigated with saline water: A scenario assessment with HYDRUS, Agricultural Water Management, 208, 67-82, 2018.

Karandish, F. and Simunek, J.: A comparison of the HYDRUS (2D/3D) and SALTMED models to investigate the influence of various water-saving irrigation strategies on the maize water footprint, Agricultural Water Management, 213, 809-820, 2019.

Karandish, F. and Simunek, J.: Two-dimensional modeling of nitrogen and water dynamics for various N-managed water-saving irrigation strategies using HYDRUS, Agricultural Water Management, 193, 174-190, 2017.

Kim, J. J., Jeon, W. H., and Lee, J. Y.: Estimation of deep percolation using field moisture observations and HYDRUS-1D modeling in Haean basin, Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 54, 545-556, 2018.

Kleissl, J., Moreno, H., Hendrickx, J. M. H., and Simunek, J.: HYDRUS simulations of soil surface temperatures. In: Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets Xii, Harmon, R. S., Broach, J. T., and Holloway, J. H. (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE, 2007.

Klement, A., Fer, M., Novotna, S., Nikodem, A., and Kodesova, R.: Root distributions in a laboratory box evaluated using two different techniques (gravimetric and image processing) and their impact on root water uptake simulated with HYDRUS, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 64, 196-208, 2016.

Kodesova, R., Kapicka, A., Lebeda, J., Grison, H., Kocarek, M., and Petrovsky, E.: NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLY-ASH TRANSPORT IN THREE SANDS OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS USING HYDRUS-1D, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 59, 206-216, 2011.

Kou, X. H. and Wang, W.: Assimilating surface soil moisture to estimate profile soil water content using EnKF and Hydrus-1D Model. In: Hydrological Cycle and Water Resources Sustainability in Changing Environments, Ren, L., Wang, W., and Yuan, F. (Eds.), IAHS Publication, 2011.

Langergraber, G. and Simunek, J.: Reactive Transport Modeling of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands Using the HYDRUS Wetland Module, Vadose Zone Journal, 11, 2012.

Lazarovitch, N.: Discussion of "Using HYDRUS-2D Simulation Model to Evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems" by Giuseppe Provenzano, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134, 877-878, 2008.

Lee, G. and Nugent, R.: MINIMALLY INVASIVE GLAUCOMA SURGERY (MIGS) - THE HYDRUS MICROSTENT (IVANTIS), Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 42, 72-73, 2014.

Leterme, B., Mallants, D., and Jacques, D.: Sensitivity of groundwater recharge using climatic analogues and HYDRUS-1D, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 2485-2497, 2012.

Li, J. K., Zhao, R. S., Li, Y. J., and Chen, L.: Modeling the effects of parameter optimization on three bioretention tanks using the HYDRUS-1D model, Journal of Environmental Management, 217, 38-46, 2018.

Li, J. S., Zhang, J. J., and Rao, M. J.: Simulation of water and nitrate transport under drip irrigation using HYDRUS-2D-model verification, 2004.

Li, Y., Simunek, J., Jing, L. F., Zhang, Z. T., and Ni, L. X.: Evaluation of water movement and water losses in a direct-seeded-rice field experiment using Hydrus-1D, Agricultural Water Management, 142, 38-46, 2014.

Li, Y., Simunek, J., Wang, S., Zhang, W. W., and Yuan, J. H.: Simulating the Effects of Lake Wind Waves on Water and Solute Exchange across the Lakeshore Using Hydrus-2D, Water, 9, 2017.

Li, Y., Simunek, J., Zhang, Z. T., Jing, L. F., and Ni, L. X.: Evaluation of nitrogen balance in a direct-seeded-rice field experiment using Hydrus-1D, Agricultural Water Management, 148, 213-222, 2015.

Li, Y. L. and Babcock, R. W.: Modeling Hydrologic Performance of a Green Roof System with HYDRUS-2D, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 141, 2015.

Liang, J., Bradford, S. A., Simunek, J., and Hartmann, A.: Adapting HYDRUS-1D to Simulate Overland Flow and Reactive Transport during Sheet Flow Deviations, Vadose Zone Journal, 16, 2017.

Liang, Z., Zhang, J., and Guo, B. B.: Research on the Dynamic Soil Moisture Contents using Hydrus-3D model. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Energy and Environmental Science 2015, Yarlagadda, P. (Ed.), AER-Advances in Engineering Research, 2015.

Liu, T. G., Lai, J. B., Luo, Y., and Liu, L.: Study on extinction depth and steady water storage in root zone based on lysimeter experiment and HYDRUS-1D simulation, Hydrology Research, 46, 871-879, 2015.

Lu, P. R., Zhang, Z. Y., Sheng, Z., Huang, M. Y., and Zhang, Z. M.: Assess Effectiveness of Salt Removal by a Subsurface Drainage with Bundled Crop Straws in Coastal Saline Soil Using HYDRUS-3D, Water, 11, 2019.

Lyu, S., Chen, W. P., Wen, X. F., and Chang, A. C.: Integration of HYDRUS-1D and MODFLOW for evaluating the dynamics of salts and nitrogen in groundwater under long-term reclaimed water irrigation, Irrigation Science, 37, 35-47, 2019.

Ma, C. A., Cai, Q. X., Wang, H., Shao, M. A., Fan, J., Shi, Z. Y., and Wang, F. X.: Modeling of Water Flow in Reclaimed Mine Spoil with Embedded Lignitic Fragments Using Hydrus-1D, Mine Water and the Environment, 34, 197-203, 2015.

Ma, Y., Feng, S. Y., Su, D. Y., Gao, G. Y., and Huo, Z. L.: Modeling water infiltration in a large layered soil column with a modified Green-Ampt model and HYDRUS-1D, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 71, S40-S47, 2010.

Mailhol, J. C., Ruelle, P., Walser, S., Schutze, N., and Dejean, C.: Analysis of AET and yield predictions under surface and buried drip irrigation systems using the Crop Model PILOTE and Hydrus-2D, Agricultural Water Management, 98, 1033-1044, 2011.

Mallants, D., Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Jacques, D.: Simulating the Fate and Transport of Coal Seam Gas Chemicals in Variably-Saturated Soils Using HYDRUS, Water, 9, 2017.

Marquez, D., Faundez, C., Aballay, E., Haberland, J., and Kremer, C.: Assesing the vertical movement of a nematicide in a sandy loam soil and its correspondence using a numerical model (HYDRUS 1D), Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 17, 167-179, 2017.

Mashayekhi, P., Ghorbani-Dashtaki, S., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Shirani, H., and Nodoushan, A. R. M.: Different scenarios for inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from double-ring infiltrometer data using HYDRUS-2D/3D, International Agrophysics, 30, 203-210, 2016.

Matteau, J. P., Gumiere, S. J., Gallichand, J., Letourneau, G., Khiari, L., Gasser, M. O., and Michaud, A.: Coupling of a nitrate production model with HYDRUS to predict nitrate leaching, Agricultural Water Management, 213, 616-626, 2019.

Mekala, C. and Nambi, I. M.: Experimental and Simulation studies on Nitrogen Dynamics in Unsaturated and Saturated Soil using HYDRUS-2D. In: 1st Global Colloquium on Recent Advancements and Effectual Researches in Engineering, Science and Technology - Raerest 2016, Baby, R. and Paul, L. (Eds.), Procedia Technology, 2016.

Meng, Y. Y., Wang, H. X., Chen, J. G., and Zhang, S. H.: Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D, Scientific World Journal, doi: 10.1155/2014/521047, 2014. 2014.

Merk, R.: Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 105, 60-69, 2012.


Mo'allim, A. A., Kamal, M. R., Muhammed, H. H., Soom, M. A. M., Zawawi, M., Wayayok, A., and Man, H. B. C.: Assessment of Nutrient Leaching in Flooded Paddy Rice Field Experiment Using Hydrus-1D, Water, 10, 2018a.

Mo'allim, A. A., Kamal, M. R., Muhammed, H. H., Yahaya, N., Zawawe, M., Man, H. B. C., and Wayayok, A.: An Assessment of the Vertical Movement of Water in a Flooded Paddy Rice Field Experiment Using Hydrus-1D, Water, 10, 2018b.

Morillo, J. G., Diaz, J. A. R., Camacho, E., and Montesinos, P.: Drip Irrigation Scheduling Using Hydrus 2-D Numerical Model Application for Strawberry Production in South-West Spain, Irrigation and Drainage, 66, 797-807, 2017.

Nakhaei, M. and Simunek, J.: Parameter estimation of soil hydraulic and thermal property functions for unsaturated porous media using the HYDRUS-2D code, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 62, 7-15, 2014.

Nanda, A., Sen, S., Jirwan, V., Sharma, A., and Kumar, V.: Understanding plot-scale hydrology of Lesser Himalayan watershedA field study and HYDRUS-2D modelling approach, Hydrological Processes, 32, 1254-1266, 2018.

Negm, A., Capodici, F., Ciraolo, G., Maltese, A., Provenzano, G., and Rallo, G.: Assessing the Performance of Thermal Inertia and Hydrus Models to Estimate Surface Soil Water Content, Applied Sciences-Basel, 7, 2017.

Neumann, L. E., Simunek, J., and Cook, F. J.: Implementation of quadratic upstream interpolation schemes for solute transport into HYDRUS-1D, Environmental Modelling & Software, 26, 1298-1308, 2011.

Niec, J., Zawadzki, P., Walczak, Z., and Spychala, M.: CALCULATING EARTH DAM SEEPAGE USING HYDRUS SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS, Acta Scientiarum Polonorum-Formatio Circumiectus, 16, 43-56, 2017.

Niswonger, R. G. and Prudic, D. E.: Comment on "Evaluating Interactions between Groundwater and Vadose Zone Using the HYDRUS-Based Flow Package for MODFLOW" by Navin Kumar C. Twarakavi, Jirka Simunek, and Sophia Seo, Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 818-819, 2009.

Pal, S., Mukherjee, S., and Ghosh, S.: Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 5249-5261, 2014.

Palfy, T. G., Gribovszki, Z., and Langergraber, G.: Design-support and performance estimation using HYDRUS/CW2D: a horizontal flow constructed wetland for polishing SBR effluent, Water Science and Technology, 71, 965-970, 2015.

Palfy, T. G. and Langergraber, G.: The verification of the Constructed Wetland Model No. 1 implementation in HYDRUS using column experiment data, Ecological Engineering, 68, 105-115, 2014.

Palfy, T. G., Molle, P., Langergraber, G., Troesch, S., Gourdon, R., and Meyer, D.: Simulation of constructed wetlands treating combined sewer overflow using HYDRUS/CW2D, Ecological Engineering, 87, 340-347, 2016.

Pang, L. P., Close, M. E., Watt, J. P. C., and Vincent, K. W.: Simulation of picloram, atrazine, and simazine leaching through two New Zealand soils and into groundwater using HYDRUS-2D, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 44, 19-46, 2000.

Pang, L. P. and Simunek, J.: Evaluation of bacteria-facilitated cadmium transport in gravel columns using the HYDRUS colloid-facilitated solute transport model, Water Resources Research, 42, 2006.

Phillips, I. R.: Modelling water and chemical transport in large undisturbed soil cores using HYDRUS-2D, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 44, 27-34, 2006.

Pontedeiro, E. M., Heilbron, P. F., Perez-Guerrero, J., Su, J., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Reassessment of the Goiania radioactive waste repository in Brazil using HYDRUS-1D, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 202-210, 2018.

Provenzano, G.: Closure to "Using Hydrus 2-D Simulation Model to Evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems" by Giuseppe Provenzano, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134, 878-879, 2008.

Provenzano, G.: Using HYDRUS-2D simulation model to evaluate wetted soil volume in subsurface drip irrigation systems, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 133, 342-349, 2007.

Pucher, B. and Langergraber, G.: Simulating vertical flow wetlands using filter media with different grain sizes with the HYDRUS Wetland Module, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 227-231, 2018.

Qin, H. P., Peng, Y. N., Tang, Q. L., and Yu, S. L.: A HYDRUS model for irrigation management of green roofs with a water storage layer, Ecological Engineering, 95, 399-408, 2016.

Rai, V., Pramanik, P., Das, T. K., Aggarwal, P., Bhattacharyya, R., Krishnan, P., and Sehgal, V. K.: Modelling soil hydrothermal regimes in pigeon pea under conservation agriculture using Hydrus-2D, Soil & Tillage Research, 190, 92-108, 2019.

Ranjbar, A., Rahimikhoob, A., Ebrahimian, H., and Varavipour, M.: Simulation of nitrogen uptake and distribution under furrows and ridges during the maize growth period using HYDRUS-2D, Irrigation Science, 37, 495-509, 2019.

Reading, L. P., Baumgartl, T., Bristow, K. L., and Lockington, D. A.: Applying HYDRUS to Flow in a Sodic Clay Soil with Solution Composition-Dependent Hydraulic Conductivity, Vadose Zone Journal, 11, 2012.

Reem, A., Mokhtar, G., Ryusei, I., and Naoyuki, F.: Assessment of Different Irrigational Practices on Managing the Nitrogen Loss into the Groundwater Using HYDRUS-1D Numerical Software Gaza Strip as a Case Study-Palestine. In: Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions, Vols I and Ii, Kallel, A., Ksibi, M., BenDhia, H., and Khelifi, N. (Eds.), Advances in Science Technology & Innovation, 2018.

Rizzo, A., Langergraber, G., Galvao, A., Boano, F., Revelli, R., and Ridolfi, L.: Modelling the response of laboratory horizontal flow constructed wetlands to unsteady organic loads with HYDRUS-CWM1, Ecological Engineering, 68, 209-213, 2014.

Roberts, T., Lazarovitch, N., Warrick, A. W., and Thompson, T. L.: Modeling Salt Accumulation with Subsurface Drip Irrigation Using HYDRUS-2D, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73, 233-240, 2009.

Rukh, S., Akhtar, M. S., Mehmood, A., Hoghooghi, N., and Radcliffe, D. E.: Evaluating Nonequilibrium Solute Transport through Four Soils of Pakistan using a HYDRUS Model and Nonparametric Indices, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 82, 1071-1084, 2018.

Saadi, M., Zghibi, A., and Kanzari, S.: Modeling interactions between saturated and un-saturated zones by Hydrus-1D in semi-arid regions (plain of Kairouan, Central Tunisia), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190, 2018a.

Saadi, M., Zghibi, A., and Kanzari, S.: Modeling interactions between saturated and un-saturated zones by Hydrus-1D in semi-arid regions (plain of Kairouan, Central Tunisia) (vol 190, 170, 2018), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190, 2018b.

Sakaguchi, A., Yanai, Y., and Sasaki, H.: Subsurface irrigation system design for vegetable production using HYDRUS-2D, Agricultural Water Management, 219, 12-18, 2019.

Salehi, A. A., Navabian, M., Varaki, M. E., and Pirmoradian, N.: Evaluation of HYDRUS-2D model to simulate the loss of nitrate in subsurface controlled drainage in a physical model scale of paddy fields, Paddy and Water Environment, 15, 433-442, 2017.

Sarmah, A. K., Close, M. E., Pang, L. P., Lee, R., and Green, S. R.: Field study of pesticide leaching in a Himatangi sand (Manawatu) and a Kiripaka bouldery clay loam (Northland). 2. Simulation using LEACHM, HYDRUS-1D, GLEAMS, and SPASMO models, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43, 471-489, 2005.

Saso, J. K., Parkin, G. W., Drury, C. F., Lauzon, J. D., and Reynolds, W. D.: Chloride leaching in two Ontario soils: Measurement and prediction using HYDRUS-1D, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 92, 285-296, 2012.

Schlegel, P., Huwe, B., and Teixeira, W. G.: Modelling species and spacing effects on root zone water dynamics using Hydrus-2D in an Amazonian agroforestry system, Agroforestry Systems, 60, 277-289, 2004.

Shahrokhnia, M. H. and Sepaskhah, A. R.: Water and nitrate dynamics in safflower field lysimeters under different irrigation strategies, planting methods, and nitrogen fertilization and application of HYDRUS-1D model, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 8563-8580, 2018.

Shan, G. L., Sun, Y. R., Zhou, H. Y., Lammers, P. S., Grantz, D. A., Xue, X. Z., and Wang, Z. Y.: A horizontal mobile dielectric sensor to assess dynamic soil water content and flows: Direct measurements under drip irrigation compared with HYDRUS-2D model simulation, Biosystems Engineering, 179, 13-21, 2019.

Shang, F. Z., Ren, S. M., Yang, P. L., Li, C. S., Xue, Y. D., and Huang, L. M.: Modeling the Risk of the Salt for Polluting Groundwater Irrigation with Recycled Water and Ground Water Using HYDRUS-1 D, Water Air and Soil Pollution, 227, 2016.

Sharma, P.: HYDRUS 2/3D applied to modeling transport of agrochemicals in drip irrigation scenarios, Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 252, 2016.

Shaygan, M., Baumgartl, T., Arnold, S., and Reading, L. P.: The effect of soil physical amendments on reclamation of a saline-sodic soil: simulation of salt leaching using HYDRUS-1D, Soil Research, 56, 829-845, 2018.

Shekofteh, H., Afyuni, M., Hajabbasi, M. A., Iversen, B. V., Nezamabadi-Pour, H., Abassi, F., Sheikholeslam, F., and Shirani, H.: Modeling of Nitrate Leaching from a Potato Field using HYDRUS-2D, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44, 2917-2931, 2013.

Shelia, V., Simunek, J., Boote, K., and Hoogenbooom, G.: Coupling DSSAT and HYDRUS-1D for simulations of soil water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 232-245, 2018.

Simunek, J., Jacques, D., Langergraber, G., Bradford, S. A., Sejna, M., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Numerical Modeling of Contaminant Transport Using HYDRUS and its Specialized Modules, Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 93, 265-284, 2013.

Simunek, J., Jacques, D., Twarakavi, N. K. C., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Selected HYDRUS modules for modeling subsurface flow and contaminant transport as influenced by biological processes at various scales, Biologia, 64, 465-469, 2009.

Simunek, J., Jacques, D., van Genuchten, M. T., and Mallants, D.: Multicomponent geochemical transport modeling using HYDRUS-1D and HP1, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 42, 1537-1547, 2006.

Simunek, J., Sejna, M., and van Genuchten, M. T.: New features of version 3 of the HYDRUS (2D/3D) computer software package, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 133-142, 2018a.

Simunek, J. and van Genuchten, M. T.: Modeling nonequilibrium flow and transport processes using HYDRUS, Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 782-797, 2008.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Kodesova, R.: Thematic Issue on HYDRUS Software Applications to Subsurface Fluid Flow and Contaminant Transport, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 129-132, 2018b.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Sejna, M.: Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 587-600, 2008a.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Sejna, M.: HYDRUS: MODEL USE, CALIBRATION, AND VALIDATION, Transactions of the Asabe, 55, 1261-1274, 2012.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Sejna, M.: Modeling subsurface water flow and solute transport with HYDRUS and related numerical software packages, 2008b.

Simunek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Sejna, M.: Recent Developments and Applications of the HYDRUS Computer Software Packages, Vadose Zone Journal, 15, 2016.

Skaggs, T. H., Trout, T. J., Simunek, J., and Shouse, P. J.: Comparison of HYDRUS-2D simulations of drip irrigation with experimental observations, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 130, 304-310, 2004.

Smethurst, P. J., Langergraber, G., Petrone, K. C., and Holz, G. K.: Hillslope and stream connectivity: simulation of concentration-discharge patterns using the HYDRUS model, 2009.

Sutanto, S. J., Wenninger, J., Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J., and Uhlenbrook, S.: Partitioning of evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception: a comparison between isotope measurements and a HYDRUS-1D model, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 2605-2616, 2012a.

Sutanto, S. J., Wenninger, J., Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J., and Uhlenbrook, S.: Partitioning of evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception: A comparison between isotope measurements and a HYDRUS-1D model (vol 16, pg 2605, 2012), Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3261-3261, 2012b.

Szymkiewicz, A., Gumula-Kawecka, A., Simunek, J., Leterme, B., Beegum, S., Jaworska-Szulc, B., Pruszkowska-Caceres, M., Gorczewska-Langner, W., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., and Jacques, D.: Simulations of freshwater lens recharge and salt/freshwater interfaces using the HYDRUS and SWI2 packages for MODFLOW, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66, 246-256, 2018.

Tafteh, A. and Sepaskhah, A. R.: Application of HYDRUS-1D model for simulating water and nitrate leaching from continuous and alternate furrow irrigated rapeseed and maize fields, Agricultural Water Management, 113, 19-29, 2012.

Tan, X. Z., Shao, D. G., Gu, W. Q., and Liu, H. H.: Field analysis of water and nitrogen fate in lowland paddy fields under different water managements using HYDRUS-1D, Agricultural Water Management, 150, 67-80, 2015.

Tan, X. Z., Shao, D. G., and Liu, H. H.: Simulating soil water regime in lowland paddy fields under different water managements using HYDRUS-1D, Agricultural Water Management, 132, 69-78, 2014.

Tang, Q. L., Qin, H. P., Tang, N., and Song, B. M.: A HYDRUS-1D Based Evaluation of the Effects of Green Roof Designs on Runoff Control, 2013.

Tangviroon, P. and Igarashi, T.: Modeling and Evaluating the Performance of River Sediment on Immobilizing Arsenic from Hydrothermally Altered Rock in Laboratory Column Experiments with Hydrus-1D, Water Air and Soil Pollution, 228, 2017.

Tawfik, A. M. and Bazaraa, A. S.: Design approach for interceptor tile drains using hydrus, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9, 3221-3228, 2018.

Toth, M. and Gazzard, G.: Intraocular pressure lowering effect of the Hydrus Microstent implantation combined with cataract surgery in moderate to advanced glaucoma, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 59, 2018.

Trakal, L., Kodesova, R., and Komarek, M.: Modelling of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn transport in metal contaminated soil and their uptake by willow (Salix x smithiana) using HYDRUS-2D program, Plant and Soil, 366, 433-451, 2013.

Turco, M., Kodesova, R., Brunetti, G., Nikodem, A., Fer, M., and Piro, P.: Unsaturated hydraulic behaviour of a permeable pavement: Laboratory investigation and numerical analysis by using the HYDRUS-2D model, Journal of Hydrology, 554, 780-791, 2017.

Tutum, C. C., Guber, A. K., Deb, K., Smucker, A., Nejadhashemi, A. P., Kiraz, B., and Ieee: An Integrated Approach Involving EMO and HYDRUS-2D Software for SWRT-based Precision Irrigation, 2015.

Twarakavi, N. K. C., Simunek, J., and Seo, S.: Evaluating interactions between groundwater and vadose zone using the HYDRUS-based flow package for MODFLOW, Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 757-768, 2008.

Twarakavi, N. K. C., Simunek, J., and Seo, S.: Reply to "Comment on 'Evaluating Interactions between Groundwater and Vadose Zone Using the HYDRUS-based Flow Package for MODFLOW'" by Navin Kumar C. Twarakavi, Jirka Simunek, and Sophia Seo, Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 820-821, 2009.

Valdes-Abellan, J., Pachepsky, Y., and Martinez, G.: MATLAB algorithm to implement soil water data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman Filter using HYDRUS, Methodsx, 5, 184-203, 2018.

Ventrella, D., Losavio, N., and Mohanty, B. P.: Using the HYDRUS-1D model for simulating Chloride transport in a clayey soil in presence of shallow groundwater: Sensitivity analysis, 1999.


Wang, J. M., Bai, Z. K., and Yang, P. L.: Using HYDRUS to Simulate the Dynamic Changes of Ca2+ and Na+ in Sodic Soils Reclaimed by Gypsum, Soil and Water Research, 11, 1-10, 2016a.

Wang, S. Q., Song, X. F., Wei, S. C., and Shao, J. L.: Application of HYDRUS-1D in understanding soil water movement at two typical sites in the North China Plain, Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering, 4, 1-11, 2016b.

Wang, S. X. and Ma, H. Y.: Modeling soil water movement and irrigation management strategies in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) orchard using HYDRUS-1D, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 84, 337-342, 2014.

Wang, X. F., Li, Y., Si, B. C., Ren, X., and Chen, J. Y.: Simulation of Water Movement in Layered Water-Repellent Soils using HYDRUS-1D, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 82, 1101-1112, 2018a.

Wang, X. F., Li, Y., Wang, Y. C., and Liu, C. C.: Performance of HYDRUS-1D for simulating water movement in water-repellent soils, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 98, 407-420, 2018b.

Wannous, M. and Kirsch, R.: Coupling Hydrus-1D code with geoelectrical measurements to investigate the infiltration process in the soil passage in the western part of Damascus, Syria, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, 2016.

Wu, Y. L., Yang, A., Zhao, Y., and Liu, Z.: SIMULATION OF SOIL WATER MOVEMENT UNDER BIOCHAR APPLICATION BASED ON THE HYDRUS-1D IN THE BLACK SOIL REGION OF CHINA, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17, 4183-4192, 2019.

Xi, B. Y., Bloomberg, M., Watt, M. S., Wang, Y., and Jia, L. M.: Modeling growth response to soil water availability simulated by HYDRUS for a mature triploid Populus tomentosa plantation located on the North China Plain, Agricultural Water Management, 176, 243-254, 2016.

Xu, X. X., Kalhoro, S. A., Chen, W. Y., and Raza, S.: The evaluation/application of Hydrus-2D model for simulating macro-pores flow in loess soil, International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 5, 196-201, 2017.

Yang, R., Tong, J. X., Hu, B. X., Li, J. Y., and Wei, W. S.: Simulating water and nitrogen loss from an irrigated paddy field under continuously flooded condition with Hydrus-1D model, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 15089-15106, 2017.

Yi, C. Q. and Fan, J.: Application of HYDRUS-1D model to provide antecedent soil water contents for analysis of runoff and soil erosion from a slope on the Loess Plateau, Catena, 139, 1-8, 2016.

Youngs, E. G. and Al Jabri, S. A.: Transient Water-Table Recession in Drained Lands Modeled Using HYDRUS and Compared with Theoretical Analyses Assuming a Succession of Momentarily Steady States, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 144, 2018.

Yu, C. and Zheng, C. M.: HYDRUS: Software for Flow and Transport Modeling in Variably Saturated Media, Ground Water, 48, 787-791, 2010.

Zeng, J. C., Yang, J. Z., Zha, Y. Y., and Shi, L. S.: Capturing soil-water and groundwater interactions with an iterative feedback coupling scheme: new HYDRUS package for MODFLOW, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 23, 637-655, 2019.

Zeng, W. Z., Lei, G. Q., Zha, Y. Y., Fang, Y. H., Wu, J. W., and Huang, J. S.: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the HYDRUS-1D model for root water uptake in saline soils, Crop & Pasture Science, 69, 163-173, 2018.

Zeng, W. Z., Xu, C., Wu, J. W., and Huang, J. S.: Soil salt leaching under different irrigation regimes: HYDRUS-1D modelling and analysis, Journal of Arid Land, 6, 44-58, 2014.

Zhang, Y., Ren, B. Z., Hursthouse, A. S., Deng, R. J., and Hou, B. L.: Study on the Migration Rules of Sb in Antimony Ore Soil Based on HYDRUS-1D, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28, 965-972, 2019.

Zhao, W., Li, Y. K., Zhou, C. F., Liu, Y. Z., Du, J., Yang, P. L., Zhang, K. Q., Wang, F., and Huang, Z. P.: HYDRUS-CLIMGEN Coupling Model and Its Applications in Analyzing Nitrogen Leaching Under Long-Term Piggery Wastewater Irrigation, Sensor Letters, 10, 649-659, 2012.

Zheng, C., Lu, Y. D., Guo, X. H., Li, H. H., Sai, J. M., and Liu, X. H.: Application of HYDRUS-1D model for research on irrigation infiltration characteristics in arid oasis of northwest China, Environmental Earth Sciences, 76, 2017.

Zheng, F. X., Zhai, Y. Z., Xia, X. L., Yin, Z. H., Du, Q. Q., Zuo, R., Wang, J. S., Teng, Y. G., and Xu, M.: Simulation of Trinitrogen Migration and Transformation in the Unsaturated Zone at a Desert Contaminant Site (NW China) Using HYDRUS-2D, Water, 10, 2018a.

Zheng, L. J., Ma, J. J., Sun, X. H., Guo, X. H., Cheng, Q. Y., and Shi, X. K.: Estimating the Root Water Uptake of Surface-Irrigated Apples Using Water Stable Isotopes and the Hydrus-1D Model, Water, 10, 2018b.

Zhou, J., Cheng, G. D., Li, X., Hu, B. X., and Wang, G. X.: Numerical Modeling of Wheat Irrigation using Coupled HYDRUS and WOFOST Models, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 76, 648-662, 2012.

Zhou, Q. Y., Kang, S. Z., Zhang, L., and Li, F. S.: Comparison of APRI and Hydrus-2D models to simulate soil water dynamics in a vineyard under alternate partial root zone drip irrigation, Plant and Soil, 291, 211-223, 2007.

Zhu, Y. H., Ren, L. L., Lu, H. S., Yu, Z. B., and Chen, Y. N.: Irrigation determination for Populus euphratica seedlings using HYDRUS-1D and pot experiments in the arid region, China. In: Hydrological Cycle and Water Resources Sustainability in Changing Environments, Ren, L., Wang, W., and Yuan, F. (Eds.), IAHS Publication, 2011.

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