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SOTE focuses on the dynamics of relative soil water content, salinity, and sodicity
Year of publication: 2022

Isaac Kramer & Yair Mau The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


SOTE focuses on the dynamics of three state variables: (i) Relative soil water content, s (dimensionless); (ii) Salinity, the electrolyte concentration of the soil water and (iii) Sodicity, the fraction of sodium ions in the soil's exchange complex. The system is driven by irrigation (chemical composition and application rates) and climate (precipitation and evapotranspiration rates). With a focus on ease of analysis over strict precision, the model averages soil properties over both the horizontal and vertical directions, such that there are no explicit spatial dimensions. SOTE integrates the Preisach framework for changes in Ks, which is unique in its ability to consider how a soil's history of degradation and rehabilitation will affect its future state.




Kramer, I., & Mau, Y. (2020). Soil Degradation Risks Assessed by the SOTE Model for Salinity and Sodicity. Water Resources Research, 56.

Kramer, I., Bayer, Y., & Mau, Y. (2022). The Sustainability of Treated Wastewater Irrigation: The Impact of Hysteresis on Saturated Soil Hydraulic Conductivity. Water Resources Research, 58(3), 1–14.

Kramer, I., Bayer, Y., Adeyemo, T., & Mau, Y. (2021). Hysteresis in soil hydraulic conductivity as driven by salinity and sodicity – a modeling framework. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1–27.

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